Mental models are decision making tools that guide our perception of the world and our behaviour in it.
They help us understand life, make decisions and solve problems. The best models help us make intelligent investments, develop ground-breaking technologies and even travel to outer space.
If you understand how your perspective contrasts with someone else's you can prevent the conversation from getting hostile. Just because you've put a lot of hours into it doesn't mean that you have to keep going. When you hear hoof beats, think of horses not zebras. Building on our knowledge of well-known models such as the Bandwagon Effect or Paradigm Shift and introducing us to the lesser known like the Eisenhower Matrix or the Boiling Frog Symbol, this indispensable book distills the most effective mental models into a single, digestible volume.
It will make even the most complex models accessible and engaging to enable you to make better, more informed decisions in every part of your life. Toon meer Toon minder.
Expertise. Insights. Illumination.
Recensie s Internalizing these mental models will help you understand the world around you. A fast-paced and fun read jam-packed with useful information on every page. I wish I'd had this book ages ago! If the facts don't hang together on a latticework of theory, you don't have them in a usable form.
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Phillip t. Joshua Spodek ReModel 5, Som Bathla Make Smart Choices 2, James A. Autry The Book of Hard Choices 16, Bekijk de hele lijst. Vaak samen gekocht. Facile Media B. Camperstops onderweg - Voordelig op reis door Frankrijk met de camper, gratis camperplaatsen 18, She wants people to understand the risks are nuanced - that potential harms lie on a curve with smoking at one end, and nicotine at the other. People who don't see that may hesitate to seek help stopping smoking, or try to restrain their intake of nicotine replacement therapy NRT.
That can make it harder to quit. Some studies show nicotine, like caffeine, can even have positive effects. It's a stimulant, which raises the heart rate and increases the speed of sensory information processing, easing tension and sharpening the mind.
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All this raises other questions: Could nicotine prime the brains of young people to seek harder stuff? Or, in an ageing society, could its stimulant properties benefit people whose brains are slowing, warding off cognitive decline into Alzheimer's and delaying the progression of Parkinson's disease? So far the answers aren't clear. And the divide is as political and emotional as it is scientific. McNeill says her work is, in part, to honor the legacy of her former mentor at King's, British psychiatrist Mike Russell. About 40 years ago, Russell was one of the first scientists to suggest that people "smoke for the nicotine, but die from the tar" - an idea that helped lay the ground for the NRT business of gums, patches, vaporizers and now e-cigarettes.
Some scientists note Russell's insight has been misused by the tobacco industry. For decades, companies' false promises of "light" cigarettes helped lure more smokers, says Mike Daube, professor of health policy at Curtin University in Australia. Smoking kills half of all those who do it - plus , people a year who don't, via second-hand smoke - making it the world's biggest preventable killer, with a predicted death toll of a billion by the end of the century, according to the World Health Organization.
Few doubt that nicotine is addictive. How quickly it hooks people is closely linked to the speed at which it is delivered to the brain, says McNeill.
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The patch is very slow; gum is slightly quicker. But there is no evidence as yet that significant numbers of people are addicted to either.
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Daniel, who works long hours in London's financial district, says he chews less on weekends when he's relaxing, doing sport and hanging out with his kids. One reason smoking is so addictive is that it's a highly efficient nicotine delivery system, McNeill says. Pure nicotine can be lethal in sufficient quantities. There is some evidence it may lead to changes in adolescent brain development, especially to the part responsible for intelligence, language and memory. Stanton Glantz, a professor of tobacco at the University of California, San Francisco, says the younger kids are when they start using nicotine, the more heavily addicted they get.
Countering that, others say studies have focused on animals and that in any case, nicotine should not be available to unders. Michael Siegel, a tobacco control expert and professor at Boston University, says that in the few studies so far, such effects have been seen only in smokers, not smoke-free nicotine users. Elsewhere, studies have looked at nicotine's potential to prevent Alzheimer's disease, and to delay the onset of Parkinson's.
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