What did the inventors call their invention? A: The Reitwagen "riding car". It was designed as a what? A: An expedient test bed for their new engine, rather than a true prototype vehicle. The first commercial design for a self-propelled cycle was a three-wheel design called what? Where did he exhibit his plans for the vehicle? The vehicle was built by whom? The Butler Petrol Cycle was a three-wheeled vehicle, with the rear wheel directly driven by a what?
How was it started? A: Starting was by compressed air. The engine was liquid-cooled, with a radiator over what? A: The rear driving wheel. How was the speed controlled? A: By means of a throttle valve lever. No braking system was fitted; How was the vehicle stopped? A: By raising and lowering the rear driving wheel using a foot-operated lever; the weight of the machine was then borne by two small castor wheels. Where was the driver seated?
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A: Between the front wheels. It wasn't, however, a success, as Butler failed to find what? A: Sufficient financial backing. If a two-wheeled vehicle with steam propulsion is considered a motorcycle, then the first motorcycles built seem to be what? A: The French Michaux-Perreaux steam velocipede which patent application was filled in December When did Excelsior Motor Company, originally a bicycle manufacturing company based in Coventry, England, begin production of their first motorcycle model?
A: In What was the first production motorcycle in the US? Many of the nineteenth century inventor s who worked on early motorcycles often did what?
A: Moved on to other inventions. Daimler and Roper, for example, both went on to do what? A: Develop automobiles.
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In , what company in England began producing motorbikes? A: Triumph Motorcycles. By it was producing how many bikes per year? A: Over bikes. He recalls D. Stewart's definition of work in Cybernetics as justified intervention and much else. Grossman, Technology Journalist and author or editor of several books including Net.
This talk reviews an influential conceptualization of prediction that was created by the 'father' of cybernetics, the US mathematician Norbert Wiener in the ss. Although the interest in the cultural and political histories of cybernetics is growing, the notion of scientific prediction, which is central to cybernetic control, is insufficiently examined.
However, this talk proposes that prediction is not a mere technical cog in the epistemology of the future, but a complex concept. It discusses Norbert Wiener's epistemology of cybernetic prediction, arguing that the cybernetic culture of prediction emphasizes the role of uncertainty and does not replace materiality with information.
Wiener's writings on cybernetic prediction, therefore, contain useful lessons for the future oriented practices in the broad fields of contemporary science, governance and politics. My topic is the history of cybernetics, this strange science that grew up in the s and 50s, reached an apogee in the s- not coincidentally, the time of the counterculture- then disappeared into obscurity and which, more recently, has been making quite a comeback in the humanities and social sciences.
I describe why cybernetics interests me now, and gesture towards its political potential, which is much argued about. Cybernetics, Robotics and Artificial Intelligence are intimately related and interdependent. Developments in AI and robotics are very rapid and are accelerating. The possibility of robots overtaking humans in capability is very real. Some very grand claims have been made about robots AI and our future.
This talk describes and compares human evolution with robot development. The cases of humanoid robots and driverless cars are briefly covered. The case of robot vision is addressed with a brief look at my own research in this field. In some fields the capability of technology far exceeds that of humans, in some aspects the technology has many years to go before it reaches that of humans. Developments in control theory and communications seemed to have solved the challenges of robot capability exceeding that of humans, whilst the current capabilities of computation in software and hardware still lag far behind, but are catching up fast.
The technologies are exciting but will be disruptive. This talk shows how to do systems thinking and translate that thinking into praxis theory informed practical action. It may be of interest to those managing or governing in situations of complexity and uncertainty across all domains of professional and personal life. The development of capabilities to think and act systemically is an urgent priority. Humans are now a force of nature, affecting whole-earth dynamics including the earth's climate - we live in an Anthropocene or Capitalocene and are confronted by the emergence of a 'post-truth', 'big data' world.
What we have developed, organisationally and institutionally, seems very fragile. An imperative exists to recover whatever systemic sensibilities we still retain, to foster systems literacy and to invest in systems thinking in practice capability.
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This will be needed in future at personal, group, community, regional, national and international levels, all at the same time. Cybernetics is notable for its recognition of ethical considerations within epistemological processes. Our claims to knowledge are intertwined with the purposes that we pursue and with our relationships with others and the world. In this paper I locate this argument within ethical discourse itself, applying the formulations of radical constructivism given by cyberneticians such as Ernst von Glasersfeld, Ranulph Glanville and Heinz von Foerster to the epistemological questions that arise within meta-ethics, such as between ethical realism and subjectivism.
In doing so I differentiate cybernetics from seemingly similar positions where responsibility is taken as an ultimate value e.
In this way, cybernetics may help formulate ethical considerations nested within ethical discourse itself. The need for cybernetics to embody ethical values has been recognized and discussed by many cyberneticians, and could be referred to in the context of cybernetics as "The Ethics Problem". But to this day, second-order cybernetics has no formal repeatable process for designing systems that behave ethically, relying instead on the ad hoc skills of an ethically-motivated designer of a system to somehow specify a system that is hopefully ethical, which is not a satisfactory solution to a problem that so desperately needs to be solved.
But what if it were possible to specify a cybernetic system that can be used to make other systems ethical? Could that solve the ethics problem? Social systems emerge from individual interactions, but these interactions may be the outcome of poorly or well-structured organisational processes. An effective organisation increases its actors flexibility to deal with constraint and their capacity for effective action. The focus of this contribution is on requirements to produce desirable social systems as an outcome of building up their complexity. I understand desirability in the ethical domain, and construct ethics in terms of producing non-pathological identities and structures, striving for fair relationships by sensing and correcting imbalances of variety in self-organising situations and assuring a maximum of social cohesion compatible with the most extensive political and economic freedom open to all.
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The question arises as to whether it might be possible to intervene at the points of intersection among organisational actors and between them an agents in their environment to produce the desirable relationships proposed above. What kind of contexts are necessary to influence the structural couplings which partially determine the selves' engagement in social life.
In this contribution my concern is examining this ethical possibility in the context of organisational life. This talk will look for gaps in our thinking about new technologies through which unintended consequences might emerge. New technologies do not arrive into a vacuum, but are deployed into a social and legacy context where many other factors determine how they are used and whether they are successful. Few of us are able to build complex enough mental models to successfully imagine more than a few strands of the future.
Vannevar Bush's Memex and New York Times science editor Waldemar Kaempffert's imagining of life in -provide historical examples; the Internet's gradual metamorphosis from open platform for sharing information to highly centralized surveillance platform, and the impact of mobile phones on apparently unrelated industries provide current ones.
Early cybernetics made profound contributions to the control of physical systems. For social systems there is a continuum of analytic techniques from 'soft' systems theory with its verbal and diagrammatic models to 'hard' complex systems theory with its mathematical and computational models.
Models all along this spectrum can be useful in solving practical problems, e. This talk will investigate how early cybernetic ideas apply to the management of modern complex human systems, and what new ideas have evolved in the science of complex systems to take cybernetics forward.
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